Today in History: November 1

Supreme Court Justices gather at the court for a formal portrait in Washington, Nov. 1, 1991. From left are, Clarence Thomas, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, Sandra Day O’Connor, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, John Paul Stevens, Harry Blackmun, Byron White, and Anthony Kennedy. (AP Photo/Ken Heinen)
Supreme Court Justices gather at the court for a formal portrait in Washington, Nov. 1, 1991. From left are, Clarence Thomas, David Souter, Antonin Scalia, Sandra Day O’Connor, Chief Justice William Rehnquist, John Paul Stevens, Harry Blackmun, Byron White, and Anthony Kennedy. (AP Photo/Ken Heinen)

Today in History

Today is Tuesday, Nov. 1, the 306th day of 2016. There are 60 days left in the year. This is All Saints Day.

Today’s Highlight in History:

On Nov. 1, 1968, the Motion Picture Association of America unveiled its new voluntary film rating system: G for general, M for mature (later changed to GP, then PG), R for restricted and X (later changed to NC-17) for adults only.

On this date:

In 1478, the Spanish Inquisition was established.

In 1604, William Shakespeare’s tragedy “Othello” was presented at Whitehall Palace in London.

In 1765, the Stamp Act, passed by the British Parliament, went into effect, prompting stiff resistance from American colonists.

In 1861, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln named Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan General-in-Chief of the Union armies, succeeding Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott.

In 1870, the United States Weather Bureau made its first meteorological observations.

In 1936, in a speech in Milan, Italy, Benito Mussolini described the alliance between his country and Nazi Germany as an “axis” running between Rome and Berlin.

In 1949, an Eastern Airlines DC-4 collided in midair with a Lockheed P-38 fighter plane near Washington National Airport, killing all 55 people aboard the DC-4 and seriously injuring the pilot of the P-38.

In 1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists tried to force their way into Blair House in Washington, D.C., in a failed attempt to assassinate President Harry S. Truman. (One of the pair was killed, along with a White House police officer.)

In 1952, the United States exploded the first hydrogen bomb, code-named “Ivy Mike,” at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands.

In 1979, former first lady Mamie Eisenhower died in Washington, D.C., at age 82.

In 1989, East Germany reopened its border with Czechoslovakia, prompting tens of thousands of refugees to flee to the West.

In 1991, Clarence Thomas took his place as the newest justice on the Supreme Court.

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